I. Cellular Basis of the Immune Response
II. Antigen Presentation and Dendritic Cells
Part I: Cellular Basis of the Immune Response
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The immune system is charged with protecting us from invading microorganisms, a task that falls to a complex array of highly specialized cell types spread throughout the body but that must work together as an integrated system. How they accomplish and perform their functions can be wonderfully understood by probing the basic mechanisms governing their activities. In the first video, we will consider the overall organization of the immune response in cellular terms, the innate immune system (comprising evolutionarily ancient phagocytic cells that recognize conserved molecules of microorganisms) and the adaptive immune system (composed of lymphocytes that recognize chemically diverse antigens).
The immune response integrates two distinct systems of innate and adaptive immunity discovered over 100 years ago. Linking these two arms of the immune response is the task of a comparatively recently identified cell type, the dendritic cell. Dendritic cells have the capacity to detect the conserved microbial products that activate cells of the innate immune response and capture the dramatically wider diversity of microbial antigens to prime antibody and T cell responses characteristic of adaptive immunity. The unique capacity of dendritic cells for antigen processing and presentation reflects a series of remarkable specializations of basic principles of cell biology.
Ira Mellman is Vice President of Research Oncology at Genentech. Ira is a cell biologist with a long standing interest in membrane traffic. His lab is reponsible for key observations leading to the initial discovery of endosomes, the mechanisms of epithelial cell polarity, and the cellular basis of dendritic cell function. Until 2007, Ira was Chair of the Department of Cell Biology at Yale University School of Medicine where he also served as Sterling Professor of Cell Biology and Immunobiology and part of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
Ira is an elected member of the European Molecular Biology Organization and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Fellow of Lincoln College (Oxford), and the recipient of numerous named lectureships and awards. He was also Editor in Chief of the Journal of Cell Biology for many years. Ira received his AB from Oberlin College, his PhD from Yale in Genetics, and performed postdoctoral work at Rockefeller (with Zanvil Cohn and Ralph Steinman).
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Trombetta, E.S. and I. Mellman (2005) The cell biological basis of antigen presentation in vitro and in vivo. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 23:975-1028.
Chow, A. and I. Mellman (2004) Old lysosomes, new tricks. Trends in Immunol. 26:72-78.
Mellman, I. (2006) Endosomes come of age. In: Endosomes. I. Dikic, ed. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience.
Mellman, I. and R.M. Steinman (2001) Dendritic cells: Specialized and regulated antigen processing machines. Cell 106:255-258.
Mellman, I. and G. Warren (2000) The roads taken: the past and future foundations of membrane traffic. Cell 100:99-112.
Mellman, I. (2007) Private lives: reflections and challenges in understanding the cell biology of the immune system. Science 317:625-627.
Shin, J.-S., M. Ebersold, M. Pypaert, A. Hartley, and I. Mellman (2006) Surface expression of MHC class II molecules in dendritic cells is controlled by regulated ubiquitination. Nature 444:115-118.