I. Synaptic Transmission
II. Recycling Synaptic Vesicles: Ultrafast Endocytosis
Part I: Synaptic Transmission
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In his first talk, Dr. Jorgensen describes the historic experiments leading to our current understanding of synaptic transmission. In the 1950s, Sir Bernard Katz proposed that stimulation of a neuron caused synaptic vesicles to fuse with the plasma membrane and release neurotransmitter. Two decades later, John Heuser and Tom Reese produced stunning electron micrographs proving that Katz’ theory was right. In addition, Heuser and Reese made that surprising finding that just 30 sec after nerve stimulation, synaptic vesicles are recycled via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Part 2 of Jorgensen’s talk focuses on work from his lab showing that there is a second mechanism for recycling synaptic vesicles which he calls ultrafast endocytosis. Ultrafast endocytosis occurs 1000x faster that the clathrin-mediated endocytosis identified by Heuser and Reese. Using electron microscopy, Jorgensen and his colleagues found that non-clathrin mediated endocytosis begins so rapidly after stimulation that it overlaps in time with synaptic vesicle exocytosis! Jorgensen goes on to explain why two mechanisms for recycling synaptic vesicles are necessary in vivo.
Erik Jorgensen is a Distinguished Professor of Biology and a member of the Program in Neuroscience at the University of Utah, and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. His lab studies the molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmission with a focus on synaptic vesicle fusion and recycling. Jorgensen’s lab uses genetics, biochemistry, light and electron microscopy to investigate neurotransmission, primarily in C. elegans.
Jorgensen has been honored with the Utah Governor’s Medal for Science and Technology, a Humboldt Research Award from the Humboldt Foundation and he was one of the inaugural recipients of the F.R. Lillie Research Innovation Award from the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Chicago. Jorgensen has also received several awards for excellence in teaching from the University of Utah.
Jorgensen received his BS from the University of California, Berkeley and his PhD from the University of Washington. He was a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of H. Robert Horvitz at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- John Heuser and Thomas Reese Discovery talk: Imaging Synaptic Vesicle Transmission
- Thomas Reese Discovery Talk: Visualizing Synaptic Signaling
- Adam Cohen iBioMagazine: Visualizing Activity in the Brain
- William Catteral iBioSeminar: Electrical Signaling: Life in the Fast Lane
- Randy Schekman iBioSeminar: Protein Secretion and Vesicle Trafficking
Watanabe S, Trimbuch T, Camacho-Pérez M, Rost BR, Brokowski B, Söhl-Kielczynski B, Felies A, Davis MW, Rosenmund C, Jorgensen EM.(2014) Clathrin regenerates synaptic vesicles from endosomes. Nature 515:228-33.
Watanabe S, Rost BR, Camacho-Pérez M, Davis MW, Söhl-Kielczynski B, Rosenmund C, Jorgensen EM. (2013) Ultrafast endocytosis at mouse hippocampal synapses. Nature 504:242-7.
Watanabe S, Liu Q, Davis MW, Hollopeter G, Thomas N, Jorgensen NB, Jorgensen EM. (2013) Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. Elife 2:e00723.
Heuser JE, Reese TS.(1973) Evidence for recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane during transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction.J Cell Biol. 57(2): 315-44.
Heuser JE, Reese TS, Dennis MJ, Jan Y, Jan L, Evans L. (1979) Synaptic vesicle exocytosis captured by quick freezing and correlated with quantal transmitter release. J Cell Biol. 81(2):275-300.